PICTURE BASED CIGARETTE WARNINGS

Picture based Cigarette Health Warnings
Research

2010:

Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance. (SEATCA)

Implementing Pictorial Health Warnings in Malaysia: Challenges and lessons learned

Canadian Cancer Society:

Cigarette package health warnings: International Status Report.

2009:

European Union

Sambrook Research International A review of the science base to support the development of health warnings for tobacco packages

Health Canada

Testing of health warning messages and health information messages for tobacco products

Australian Government Ministry of Health and Aging

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Graphic Health Warnings on Tobacco Product Packaging 2008 – Full Report (PDF 1726 KB)

Technical Report: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Graphic Health Warnings on Tobacco Product Packaging 2008

Literature Review: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Graphic Health Warnings on Tobacco Product Packaging 2008

Analysis of 2005/2006 Data: Initial Consumer Reactions to the Graphic Health Warnings

2008:

Review of health warning messages around the world.
Rob Cunningham, Canadian Cancer Society

Health Canada Commissioned research on size of health warning messages (100% is best!)

Createc (experimental)
Effects of modified packaging through increasing the size of warnings on cigarette packages.
Adult
Youth

Environics (polling):
Adult
Youth

2007

Text and Graphic Warnings on Cigarette Packages
Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Study
David Hammond, PhD, Geoffrey T. Fong, PhD, Ron Borland, PhD, K. Michael Cummings, PhD, Ann McNeill, PhD, Pete Driezen, MSc

America Journal of Preventive Medecine 2007;32(3)

Conclusions:
Large, comprehensive warnings on cigarette packages are more likely to be noticed and rated as effective by smokers. Changes in health warnings are also associated with increased effectiveness. Health warnings on U.S. packages, which were last updated in 1984, were associated with the least effectiveness.

Prior to 2007

National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance (ANVISA) (2003). Resolution - RDC nº 335. Government of Brazil.
http://www.anvisa.gov.br/eng/legis/resol/335_03rdc.htm

Createc + Market Report. (2003). Effectiveness of Health Warning Messages on Cigarette Packages in Informing Less-literate Smokers. Health Canada
download here

 Cunningham, R. (2005).  Cigarette Package Warnings:  An overview of International Developments.

Developmental Research for New Australian Health Warnings on Tobacco Products, Stage 1 and 2, and Appendix. All available at
http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/health-pubhlth-strateg-drugs-tobacco-warnings.htm

Environics Research Group Ltd., (2001). "Evaluation of New Warnings on Cigarette Packages.” Prepared for Canadian Cancer Society, Focus Canada 2001-3.
http://www.cancer.ca/vgn/images/portal/ cit_776/35/20/41720738niw_labelstudy.pdf

 Fong, G. T. (2001) A review of the research on tobacco warning labels with particular emphasis on the new Canadian warning labels. Expert report submitted to Justice Canada in JTI_Macdonald and Imperial Tobacco Canada and Rothmans, Benson & Hedges v. The Attorney General of Canada

 Hammond, D., et al., (2003). Impact of the Graphic Canadian Warning Labels on Adult Smoking Behaviour.” Tobacco Control, 12: 391-395.

 Hammond, D. ( 2002). Cigarette warning labels and smoking cessation: A longitudinal survey of adult smokers in the Waterloo Region. Master’s Thesis. University of Waterloo

 Hammond D., et al., (2004). The impact of cigarette warning labels and smoke-free bylaws on smoking cessation: evidence from former smokers. Can J Public Health, 95(3): 201-4

 Hammond D, et al., (2004). Graphic Canadian cigarette warning labels and adverse outcomes: evidence from Canadian smokers. Am J Public Health, 94(8): 1442-5.

Mahood, G.  Canada’s Tobacco Package Label or Warning System: "Telling the Truth" about Tobacco Product Risks.  World Health Organization.

 Health Canada research:

 Environics Research Group Limited (2000). Health Warning Messages on the Flip/Slide and Inserts of Cigarette Packaging – A Survey of Smokers. Ottawa: Health Canada.

 Environics Research Group Limited (2003a). Toxics Information on Cigarette Packaging: Results of a Survey of Smokers. Ottawa: Health Canada.
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 Environics Research Group Limited (2004a). Wave 9 Surveys: The Health Effects of Tobacco and Health Warning Messages on Cigarette Packages – Survey of Adults and Adult Smokers . Ottawa: Health Canada.
download  here

 Environics Research Group Limited (2004b). Wave 9 Surveys: The Health Effects of Tobacco and Health Warning Messages on Cigarette Packages – Survey of Youth. Ottawa: Health Canada.
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Health Canada (1999). Proposed New Labelling Requirements for Tobacco Products – Consultation Paper. Ottawa: Health Canada.
download  here

 Health Canada (2000). Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey.
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hecs-sesc/tobacco/research/ctums/
(Access date: April 19, 2004).

Kaiserman, M. J., et al., (2003).  The Evaluation of Canada’s Health Warning Messages: 18 Month Follow-Up.  Slide Presentation. Ottawa: Health Canada.
download  here

 Les Études de marché Créatec + (2003a). Effectiveness of Health Warning Messages on Cigarette Packages in Informing Less-literate Smokers: Final Report. Ottawa: Communication Canada.
download here

Les Études de marché Créatec + (2003b). Health Warning Messages on Smokeless Tobacco, Cigars and Pipe Products – A Qualitative Study with Consumers. Ottawa: Health Canada.
download here

Regulatory Impact Statement.
download here

Australian government research

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Proposed New Health Warnings on Tobacco Products. Report Prepared for Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing. Applied Economics. December 2003
download here

Strahan, E.J. et al., (2002). “Enhancing the Effectiveness of Tobacco Package Warning Labels: A Social Psychological Perspective.” Tobacco  Control, 11: 183-190. abstract

New Zealand government research

National Drug Policy New Zealand. Smoking Health Warnings Study. Concept testing the impact of pictorial health warnings in helping people consider their smoking-related behaviour. Stage 3. Date of publication: May 2006
Link

United States

Worth More Than A Thousand Words:
Picture-Based Tobacco Warning Labels and Language Rights
in the U.S. POWER, Tobacco Free Coalition, DataCenter
February 2007

Cigarette smoking kills one out of two long-term users, making tobacco consumption one of the most important public health issues for nations all over the world. At the same time, addiction to tobacco products has made transnational tobacco one of the most profitable industries in the global economy. Years of deception and misinformation have created a huge gap in public awareness of the harmful effects of tobacco products. Working class and immigrant communities throughout the United States are at once targeted by the tobacco industry as consumers, and often barred from access to public health warnings as a result of English-only text-based warning labels. One of the most successful and cost-effective policy initiatives to eliminate this gap is the use of picture-based tobacco warning labels. This report summarizes the history and current status of tobacco warning labels in the United States, describes the problem of language discrimination and the international trend toward picture-based warning labels, and details recommendations for legislative action.

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